What is ecological fallacy and reductionist fallacy, and how do they correspond to the misuse of units of analysis in a given study? How can a study avoid each of these logical fallacies from the standpoint of unit of analysis?
Case study—Unit of analysis: Star Island is an ultra-wealthy Miami neighborhood (https://www.miamiluxuryhomes.com/miami-beach/star-island/ (Links to an external site.)). I meet a guy named Baron Trump Rockefeller Gates Bezos XIII who lives on Star Island. I assume, based on the characteristics of the neighborhood, that he himself as an individual must be super smart, hardworking, creative, etc.—someone who has truly earned such wealth. What logical fallacy have I committed, and why from the standpoint of units of analysis?
Case study—Unit of analysis: I stop for gas in the Miami neighborhood of Opa-Locka, which has a very high official poverty rate (50%). It’s Wednesday, 11:13 am. A man approaches me and asks for a dollar to buy a cup of coffee. Based on this individual, I think to myself: “No wonder this neighborhood is so poor. Its residents are unwilling to work and just want to live on handouts.” What logical fallacy have I committed, and why from the standpoint of units of analysis?
What is a cross-sectional research design? Give an example.
What is a longitudinal research design? Give an example.